Being funny is serious

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The first week of august is dedicated to the clowns as the International clown’s week.

The clown figure has had so many meanings in different times and cultures. The jolly, well-loved joker familiar to most people is only one aspect of this protean creature. Madmen, hunchbacks, amputees and other abnormal were considered as natural clowns once upon a time. They were elected tofu fill a comic role which could allow others to see them as ludicrous rather than as terrible reminders of forces of disorder in the world. But sometimes a cheerless jester was required to draw attention to this same disorder, as in the case King Lear’s morbid and honest fool, he was of course eventually hanged and so much for his clownish wisdom. Clowns have often had ambiguous and sometimes contradictory roles to play.

The dictionary however defines a clown as someone who performs in a circus who wears funny clothes and makeup, and who tries to make people laugh. Someone who often does funny things to make people laugh, or it could even people a rude or a stupid person. The word probably arises from Low German origin, akin to Frisian clumsy fellow or Old English Clyne  that meant lump of mental. It was first known to be used in 1563

Historically the fifth dynasty of Egypt documents the presence of clowns around 2400 BC.  Clowns though similar to court jesters, they have traditionally served a socio religious and psychological role. Traditionally the roles of priests and clowns have been held by the same persons, this tradition is also seen in the Sanskrit drama pattern of Sutradhara and Vidhushaka.

As observed by Peter Berger it could be plausible that folly and fools like religion and magic meet some deeply rooted needs in human society. This is often considered an important part of training in the eastern schools of physical performance. Many of the performances begin with novices playing the Kodangi.

To put it very simplistically a clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick, or some form of physical humour, many a times like a mime.  There are varied tradition and variation of costume and performances even with the genre of clowns. Outlandish make-up, distinctive costumes, exaggerated mannerisms, and loud clothing usually are the features of a clown as it helps to connect and entertain audience particularly at a distance.

For me clowns were usually associated with circus, they have been linked with circus since 18th century.  The traditional white face make-up was created by Joseph Grimaldi who was the first mainstream clown.

A clown usually performs the role of a fool whose everyday action and tasks become extraordinary and for whom the ridiculous is quite ordinary.

There are people who fear clowns and the condition is known as coulrophobia.

Clowns are of different types we have the sad clown  blanc, the happy clown auguste, the Whiteface clown created by Joseph Grimaldi in 1801 has become the classic face of a- clown.with white covering the entire face and neck so that no skin is visible. This clown type is more extravagant and wears ruffled collars and pointed hat all which have come to typify the clown suit.

Auguste is another archtype, with white muzzle and eyes.  The base make-up being a variation of pink, red or tan rather than white. The facial features are exaggerated in size and typically red and black in colour. The clothes of Auguste are either oversized or too small. Bold colours, large prints and suspenders are usually used. Auguste is more of an anarchist, a joker or a fool. He is very clever though he has less status than the white face, Auguste is usually the sidekick of whiteface, and is challenged when he has to obey the orders of whiteface. The errors resulting from the confused or foolish acts Auguste, either deliberately or not leads to hilarity.

Sometimes there is a mediator between whiteface character and auguste who is the contra-Auguste, his status falls in between too.  He mimics whiteface and is often instructed by whiteface to correct Auguste.

Sometimes an eccentric presentation of an every character like a baker, butcher, policeman or a housewife is present this becomes the Character Clown. He/she is a comic slant on the standard human face. Their make starts with flesh tone base and may make use of anything from glasses moustaches and beards to freckles, warts, big ears or strange haircuts.

Each culture has its own presentation of the clown, American circuses have the hobo, tramp or bum clown, the difference between these clowns types are usually their attitude.

  • The hobo who is migratory he finds work as he travels, usually down on his luck but maintains a positive attitude.
  • The tramp Migratory but does not work, he is down on his luck too, and is depressed about his situation.
  • The bum is neither migratory nor working.

Stories have their own clown who is masters of presenting various truths in their stark form which sounds rather absurd.  Native American mythology has trickster who channels the spirit of a coyote he is usually a sacred clown, a Heike is a person who lives outside the constrains of normal cultural roles, he usually does everything backwards, or reverse.

Pierrot and Harlequin are two distinct types of clown charecters created in commedia dell’Arte and are still going strong. Pierrot or Piroutte is usually the youngest actor of the troupe, deadpan and down trodden he usually appears in whiteface

Harlequin the dim, and clumsy messenger is another prototype, he always carries a cane to strike other performers but get struck with it instead.This is the concept that is believed to be the origin of slapstick

Some clowning terminology

When it comes to skills in a circus a clown may perform other roles lie

  • Walking a tightrope, on a highwire, or slack rope or a piece of rope on the ground.
  • Substitute himself for a lion tamer, but of course he is clumsy
  • Ride a horse, a zebra or a donkey or an elephant.
  • When the clown takes on the role of a ring master he becomes the emcee. Or the MC.
  • Clown are known to be acrobatic, or horse riders

The clown act is the general outline of an act that clowns use to help them build an act. The frameworks can be loose with a beginning and an end with the in between being improvised. In the context of a circus the clowns are present in entrees, side dishes, clown stops, trick gags and gags and bits.

Strangely the fear of clowns rides very high in people and it called the coulrophobia.

This actually causes anxiety particularly when the character of the evil clown is seen. This not often in used in real space this prevails more in the virtual space.

More about clowns in — http://www.allaboutclowns.com/

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Purvaranga

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PURVARANGA
Purva ranga is the prelude to every performance.
The chapters 2,3 and 5 of natyashastra refer to purva ranga.
It begins onstage with curtains closed the musical instruments are arranged. The steps are as follows:
Ritual Procedure Dedication
Pratyahara The opening Nagas and rakshasas
Avatarna Singers follow Apsaras
Arambha The vocal musical exercise Gandhara
Asravana Tuning of instruments Dhanava
Vaktrapani The performing technique Dhanava
Parighattana The setting of strined instruments Rakshasas
Samoghatana Setting of rhythm Guhyakas
Margasarita Blending of string instruments with drums Yaksha
Asarita Rhythms are set
Gitividhi Honor of the gods.

This proves that it is not just a sacral procedure. It is an unique form of worship. Once the curtain is raised we have
Ritual dedication
Madraka or vardhamanaka With an accompanying dance is the song and dance praising rudra.
Uttapana Sings in the praise of jarjara the weapon of indra.
Parivartana Is in the praise of Lokapalas
Nandi To the Brahmins and kings
Suskaprakrsta Jarjara and pitru
Rangadwara Vishnu
Cari Uma
Mahacari Rudra
Trigata Conversation between the sutradara and his assistants
Prarocana Is the hint of the drama.

Moolata brahma rupaya Madhyatho Vishnu toopena
Agratha siva roopaya vrksha raajayathe namah.

The tree is analgous to the Arbour Mundi.
• Brahma on the top
• Shankara in the second.
• Vishnu in the branches
• Skanda in the 4th
• Nagas in the 5th – which is the base.
Reference:
• Sanskrit drama in performance
• Drama and rituals of early Hinduism