As the visual flows

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This seems to be an emerging pattern these days,

The Secret History of Improvisation in World War II

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The Creativity Guru

I just came across a fascinating article*, published in 1948, describing the use of improvisation in personality assessment. Even more fascinating is that the lead author is the famous developmental psychologist, Urie Bronfenbrenner, who’s not really known for this type of research.  (He’s probably most famous for co-founding the U.S. Head Start program in the 1960s and 1970s.)

Bronfenbrenner starts the article by giving us the amazing history: During World War II, many American psychologists were drafted into the war effort. Working for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), they were asked to screen all of the “special ops” forces before they were chosen to go overseas. Bronfenbrenner describes some of the positions:

member of a research team working on the economic geography of the Orient, radio operator for a unit of the French Underground, propaganda writer for a radio station in the Pacific beaming programs to Japan, leader of a…

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Natyashastra calls Natyaveda a component of four vidha’s or aspects to create abhinaya. the Angika the body movements, the Vachika the spoken word, the satvika the emotional gradient, and finally aharya the costumes.

Kala academy had a workshop for its students on Angika abhinaya. since the students focus was on drama and not dance, we experimented with the concepts of Angahara, that is we start with a stanaka or the start movement, which is again starts with neutral, then we take the stance of the character, we then move on to the various walks, gaits, gestures until we have created our character. The various characters tell their story, with the help of the sutradhara.

Since panchatantra involved a narration with animals we opted for it.



2016 Ramkatha

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rehearsal kala academy

The tradition of Ramkatha, has been handed down from the time of Tulasi das, we never question many things.

The North Indian population of Goa, have their annual Ramkatha performance with the burning of Ravan’s effigy, the crowd is amazing, rains and all.

For the past 15yrs my students have been performing, from the blatant, Ramkatha’s, the Ramcharit Manas, to the Chopai and Dohe  we done it.

we have performed Ramkatha in Jazz, the Bhavayami Raghuramam of Swati thirunal they have all been performed.

This year it is another take.

Being funny is serious


The first week of august is dedicated to the clowns as the International clown’s week.

The clown figure has had so many meanings in different times and cultures. The jolly, well-loved joker familiar to most people is only one aspect of this protean creature. Madmen, hunchbacks, amputees and other abnormal were considered as natural clowns once upon a time. They were elected tofu fill a comic role which could allow others to see them as ludicrous rather than as terrible reminders of forces of disorder in the world. But sometimes a cheerless jester was required to draw attention to this same disorder, as in the case King Lear’s morbid and honest fool, he was of course eventually hanged and so much for his clownish wisdom. Clowns have often had ambiguous and sometimes contradictory roles to play.

The dictionary however defines a clown as someone who performs in a circus who wears funny clothes and makeup, and who tries to make people laugh. Someone who often does funny things to make people laugh, or it could even people a rude or a stupid person. The word probably arises from Low German origin, akin to Frisian clumsy fellow or Old English Clyne  that meant lump of mental. It was first known to be used in 1563

Historically the fifth dynasty of Egypt documents the presence of clowns around 2400 BC.  Clowns though similar to court jesters, they have traditionally served a socio religious and psychological role. Traditionally the roles of priests and clowns have been held by the same persons, this tradition is also seen in the Sanskrit drama pattern of Sutradhara and Vidhushaka.

As observed by Peter Berger it could be plausible that folly and fools like religion and magic meet some deeply rooted needs in human society. This is often considered an important part of training in the eastern schools of physical performance. Many of the performances begin with novices playing the Kodangi.

To put it very simplistically a clown is a comic performer who employs slapstick, or some form of physical humour, many a times like a mime.  There are varied tradition and variation of costume and performances even with the genre of clowns. Outlandish make-up, distinctive costumes, exaggerated mannerisms, and loud clothing usually are the features of a clown as it helps to connect and entertain audience particularly at a distance.

For me clowns were usually associated with circus, they have been linked with circus since 18th century.  The traditional white face make-up was created by Joseph Grimaldi who was the first mainstream clown.

A clown usually performs the role of a fool whose everyday action and tasks become extraordinary and for whom the ridiculous is quite ordinary.

There are people who fear clowns and the condition is known as coulrophobia.

Clowns are of different types we have the sad clown  blanc, the happy clown auguste, the Whiteface clown created by Joseph Grimaldi in 1801 has become the classic face of a- clown.with white covering the entire face and neck so that no skin is visible. This clown type is more extravagant and wears ruffled collars and pointed hat all which have come to typify the clown suit.

Auguste is another archtype, with white muzzle and eyes.  The base make-up being a variation of pink, red or tan rather than white. The facial features are exaggerated in size and typically red and black in colour. The clothes of Auguste are either oversized or too small. Bold colours, large prints and suspenders are usually used. Auguste is more of an anarchist, a joker or a fool. He is very clever though he has less status than the white face, Auguste is usually the sidekick of whiteface, and is challenged when he has to obey the orders of whiteface. The errors resulting from the confused or foolish acts Auguste, either deliberately or not leads to hilarity.

Sometimes there is a mediator between whiteface character and auguste who is the contra-Auguste, his status falls in between too.  He mimics whiteface and is often instructed by whiteface to correct Auguste.

Sometimes an eccentric presentation of an every character like a baker, butcher, policeman or a housewife is present this becomes the Character Clown. He/she is a comic slant on the standard human face. Their make starts with flesh tone base and may make use of anything from glasses moustaches and beards to freckles, warts, big ears or strange haircuts.

Each culture has its own presentation of the clown, American circuses have the hobo, tramp or bum clown, the difference between these clowns types are usually their attitude.

  • The hobo who is migratory he finds work as he travels, usually down on his luck but maintains a positive attitude.
  • The tramp Migratory but does not work, he is down on his luck too, and is depressed about his situation.
  • The bum is neither migratory nor working.

Stories have their own clown who is masters of presenting various truths in their stark form which sounds rather absurd.  Native American mythology has trickster who channels the spirit of a coyote he is usually a sacred clown, a Heike is a person who lives outside the constrains of normal cultural roles, he usually does everything backwards, or reverse.

Pierrot and Harlequin are two distinct types of clown charecters created in commedia dell’Arte and are still going strong. Pierrot or Piroutte is usually the youngest actor of the troupe, deadpan and down trodden he usually appears in whiteface

Harlequin the dim, and clumsy messenger is another prototype, he always carries a cane to strike other performers but get struck with it instead.This is the concept that is believed to be the origin of slapstick

Some clowning terminology

When it comes to skills in a circus a clown may perform other roles lie

  • Walking a tightrope, on a highwire, or slack rope or a piece of rope on the ground.
  • Substitute himself for a lion tamer, but of course he is clumsy
  • Ride a horse, a zebra or a donkey or an elephant.
  • When the clown takes on the role of a ring master he becomes the emcee. Or the MC.
  • Clown are known to be acrobatic, or horse riders

The clown act is the general outline of an act that clowns use to help them build an act. The frameworks can be loose with a beginning and an end with the in between being improvised. In the context of a circus the clowns are present in entrees, side dishes, clown stops, trick gags and gags and bits.

Strangely the fear of clowns rides very high in people and it called the coulrophobia.

This actually causes anxiety particularly when the character of the evil clown is seen. This not often in used in real space this prevails more in the virtual space.

More about clowns in —


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pakhwajAn instrument that always reminds me of the mrdhangam.

It is either played solo or as the all important time and rhythm keeper of traditional performing arts.

The young Pakhwaj Player Pratap Awad who accompanied Sri.Bah’uddin Dagar during his sessions at the goa university shared with us the mythology of the instrument—

The divine designer Vishwakarma’s wife was enchanted by the gentle yet firm sound created by the rain drops dropping on the earth. Inspired by this Vishwakarma created the mrdangam, he shared with us of course various other mythology around this too. But this was truly inspiring.

The early  instrument was made of earth and wood. It eventually evolved to its form today.

It was a pleasure listen to this young boy who was so passionate in playing the instrument and sharing his knowledge with us. He particularly rendered a rendering of a Shiva stuthi with no musical accompaniment other than the Pakhwaj, the definition of the percussion was so wonderful that I actually wanted to go on stage and render the dance version of it.


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Angika abhinaya,

Anga are the parts of the body, and that which pertains to it, is Angika.

That which manifests the inner emotions such that it is visually perceivable is Angika abhinaya.

The body language often communicates more than words.

When we have to study angikaabhinaya we refer to Anga, pratyanga   and Upanga.

Anga—refers head, neck, chest, torso and waist.

Pratyanga – refers to neck, stomach, thighs, knees back and shoulders

Upanga — refers to eyes, brows, nose, lips, chin, cheek, teeth, tongue and shoulder.

Angikaabhinaya can also be classified as

Shaka—handmovements, hand gestures, and mudras

Ankura – of the yes, neck, face and head

Nrtta, just body movement

Dasarupaka a referral text on theatre, explicitly puts, nrtya as pantomime, and Nrtta as dancing to rhythm.

Despite emerging from the same root words, Nrtta would mean body movements, while natya is the drama component, so nrtya would be a drama presented through the medium of movement, dance and mime.

Physical expressions are beautiful forms of expression. It is paradoxical in existenaces as it involves structured learning and practise but when it comes to actual implementation there are lot of interpretations that come to play.

Natyashastra describes the detailing of movement. Most people find it rather confusing when every form of classical dancing claims Natyashastra as its progenitor. How is this feasible when each form is different from the other?

The logic runs Natyashastra is text that provides a definition, for want of better word I shall call it a formula called  Shuddha, and to these local flavours add in, say in Kerala the musical accompaniment and movements would be full grandiose as it needs to stand out in the structure of the vibrancy of nature and fury of sea. While in the Tibetan dances earth colours dominate, with cymbals and wind instruments to carry the sound over the mountains. These musical changes bring out subtle modification in movement creating what is called as the Margi. Finally we have absolute folk, that is constantly re-inventing itself and that is called as the bahuchari. This explanation by the scholar Dr,Chudamani Nandagopal of the Guwhati museum makes a lot of sense.

Though we have fallen to accept the  classification of the forms as Natyadharmi or the structured classical and Lokadharmi as the free flow folk.

In the context of a classical play we accost movement, in the form of Rangakramana or the usage of stage space. There is also the interpersonal spacing of the actors and finally the Angika abhinaya or expression through body movement.

The walk and stance of the actors are also prescribed to create the precise visual of the character presented.

The practise of this form calls for tremendous stamina and skill from a performer.

The guidance for this form of expression is largely drawn from texts like Natyashastra, Dasarupaka, abhinaya darpana, hastamuktavali, Bharatarnava, sahitya ratnakara, lasyaranjana, and others.

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